Archive | December 2010

Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)

also known as Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory distress syndrome of newborn, and previously called hyaline membrane disease.

It is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs.

It can also result from a genetic problem with the production of surfactant associated proteins. RDS affects about 1% of newborn infants and is the leading cause of death in preterm infants.


  1. tachypnea
  2. cyanosis
  3. glassy appearance of the alveolar membranes




A form of hyperesthesia. Hyerperesthesias include both allodynia and hyperalgesia.

Results when a stimulus that should produce a normal sensation is experienced as pain.

Constipation etiology

 Constipation classified as Primary or idiopathic


  1. Immobility or decreased activity level
  2. inadequate intake of fluids and dietary fibre
  3. failure to respond to the urge to defecate
  4. chronic use of stimulant laxatives
  5. increased serum progesterone levels in women.

Associated with immobility or decreased levels of physical activity 



Bowel Care


Bowel Care Step by Step

Step 1: Exercise–Fluid–Fibre–Toileting Regimen

Step 2: Bulk-Forming Laxatives

Step 3: Stool Softeners

  • Docusate sodium (Colace)100 to 400 mg daily

Step 4: Osmotic Laxatives 

eg. Lactulose and Magnesium Sulfate 

  • Lactulose (Cephalac) 70% liquid solution 30-45 ml OD or BID
  • Sorbital liquid* 15 ml TID, then OD
  • Magnesium sulfate* 10-30 mg OD

Step 5: Stimulants

eg. Senokot 0.5 to 2 grams OD or BID

Step 6: Suppository Enema

eg. Glycerine, Dulcolax, Fleet = Sodium/Phosphate enema.

  • -Glycerine suppository* – one rectally PRN (Semla et al., 1997)
  • -Bisacodyl (Dulcolax)* 5-10 mg suppository – one rectally PRN
  • -Sodium/Potassium phosphate enema (Fleets)* 133 ml(21.3 grams)
  • instill rectally PRN (Gibson et al., 1995)

Bowel Care Day by Day

Day #3 without bowel movement

  • In combination with Step #1:
  • Begin at step #2 and proceed through step #5 as needed.

Day #4 without bowel movement:

  • Repeat steps #2 through #5.


Day #5 without bowel movement:

  • Go to step #6.

Toronto best practice in long term care initiative. 2006. Policy and Procedure manual for bladder and bowel management. Retrieved December 11, 2010 from

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Female endocrine disorder causing cysts to develop in the ovaries which results in infertility.


  • infertility
  • obesity
  • Vincentosity
  • anovulation (resulting in irregular menstruation) or amenorrhea
  • acne
  • excessive amounts or effects of androgenic (masculinizing) hormones.


Hernial protrusion of the stomach or of a gastric pouch.


Derived from the greek word apoplexy.

Refers to bleeding in a cerebrovascular accident (stroke).

It can be used non-medically referring to a state of extreme rage or excitement.