An extreme generalized edema characterized by the accumulation of serum in the tissues due to effusion of fluid into the extracellular space.
- Straight or intermittent catheter
- single lumen catheter inserted into bladder through the urethra only to empty the bladder, then is removed
- to determine residual volume
- if pt cannot urinate related to urinary obstruction or neurological disorder such as spinal injury
- patients use clean technique in home setting
- in hospital sterile technique is used due to high nosocomial infection rate
- Indwelling (foley)
- catheter is pre-connected or connected after insertion to a closed drainage system that acts as a reservoir for urine drainage.
- In the foley, a separate lumen is used to inflate a balloon sot he catheter placement is maintained
- presence of stage 3 or 4 pressure ulcers that fail to heal as a result of continued incontinence
- When accurate measurement of urinary output in critically ill patients is needed
- relief of urinary obstruction
- postoperatively (spinal anesthesia, bladder injury)
Prior to insertion:
- review patient’s history
- check for physician’s order
- determine previous catheterization and size
- last time pt voided
- check I&O
- Mobility and physical limitations
- gender and age
- infant 5-6 French
- child 8-10 Fr
- adult female 14-16 Fr
- young girl or woman 12 Fr
- Men 16-18 Fr
- Assess bladder for palpable distention above the symphysis pubis
- Use bladder scanner to determine post void residual
- Determine patient’s previous experience with catheterization
- type and size of catheter
- amt of fluid used to inflate catheter balloon
- state reason for catheterization, specimen collection
- patient’s response to procedure
- patient’s understanding of teaching or self-care
- start in and out record
Areas of bony prominence are at risk for developing decubitus ulcers or pressure sores:
Positioning and turning patients at 30 degree angles relieves pressure from bony prominences. This allows existing pressure sores in these areas to heal or prevents pressure sores occurring in the first place.
At term, the uterus and placenta receive 500-800 mL of blood per minute through their low resistance network of vessels. The high circulatory exchange predisposes a gravid uterus to significant bleeding if not well physiologically or medically controlled.
Biologic hemorrhage protection:
Maternal blood volume increases by 50% the third trimester (increases the body’s tolerance of blood loss during delivery).
Biological protection of the maternal body against postpartum hemorrhage:
Reduction in uterine size:
The gravid uterus contracts down significantly after delivery given the reduction in volume. This allows the placenta to separate from the uterine interface, exposing maternal blood vessels that interface with the placental surface.
Constriction of vasculature
After separation and delivery of the placenta, the uterus initiates a process of contraction and retraction, shortening its fiber and kinking the supplying blood vessels, like physiologic sutures or “living ligatures.”
If the uterus fails to contract, or the placenta fails to separate or deliver, then significant hemorrhage may ensue.
Risk factors for complications:
- Uterine atony, or diminished myometrial contractility, accounts for 80% of postpartum hemorrhage.
- Abnormal placental attachment
- Retained placental tissue
- Laceration of tissues or blood vessels in the pelvis and genital tract
- Maternal coagulopathies.
- Uterine inversion during placental delivery (rare).
The traditional pneumonic “4Ts:
Carusi, Daniela,Yaa, Maame, and Yiadom, A B. 2010. Pregnancy, Postpartum Hemorrhage. Emedicine. Retrieved October 24, 2010 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/796785-overview
The loss of 500ml or more of blood following a vagial delivery or the loss of 1000ml of blood following a cesearean delivery.
- Large placenta (large surface area that seperates from the uterine wall)
- Over disteeded uterus
- Uterine atony or low uterine muscle tone (decreases ability of the uterus to contract and close off vasculature that fed the placenta after it seperates from the uterine wall).
Site – where?
Onset – sudden, gradual? when?
Character – what is the pain like? ache? stabbing?
Associations – other sites with pain? what provokes it?
Time course – Does it follow a time pattern?
Exacerbating/relieving factors – what relieves it?
Severity – Pain scale
|Reflex||Stimulation||Infants Response||Development Patterns|
|Blinking||Flash of light puff of air||Closes both eyes||Permanent|
|Babinski||Stroke sole of foot||Twists foot, fans out toes||Disappears 9 months to one year|
|Moro||Loud noise, being dropped||Arches back and throws out arms and legs, then closes||Disappears after 3 to 4 months|
|Grasping||Palms touched||Grasp tightly||Weakens after 3 months, disappears after 1 year|
|Rooting||Cheeks stroked or side of mouth touched||Turns head, opens mouth and begins sucking||Disappears after 3 to 4 months|
|Stepping||Infants held above surface and feet lowered to touch surface||Moves feet as if to walk||Disappears after 3 to 4 months|
|Sucking||Object touching mouth||Sucks automatically||Disappears after 3 to 4 months|
|Swimming||Infant put face down in water||Makes coordinating swimming movements||Disappears after 6 to 7 months|
|Tonic Neck||Infant placed on back||Forms fist with hands and makes a “fencers” pose||Disappears after 2 months|
Developmental psychology. 2010. Infant Development: Infant Reflexes. Retrieved October 22, 2010 from http://www.mesacc.edu/dept/d46/psy/dev/Fall98/Infant/Infant.html