Pain assessment in the nonverbal or cognitively impaired
Hierarchy of pain assessment techniques
- Obtain self-report if possible
- search for potential causes of pain or other pathologies that could cause pain
- observe patient behaviors that are indicative of pain
- obtain surrogate reporting from family/parents/caregivers of pain and behavioral activity and changes
- Attempt an analgesic trial to assess a reduction in possible pain behaviors
Ferrel, B. R., & Coyle, N. (Eds.). (2010). Oxford textbook of palliative nursing (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.