Types of Pneumothorax
Pneumothorax: abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity
Types of pneumothorax:
- Closed pneumothorax
- Open pneumothorax
- Spontaneous pneumothorax: Air in the pleural space that is ideopathic in nature, however is often the result of underlying disease, termed a secondary pneumothorax.
- Traumatic pneumothorax
- Flail chest: A severe traumatic injury of the rib cage
- integrity of the rib cage is compromised as multiple osseous fragments respond as an independent segment from the rest of the chest wall during inspiration and expiration.
- The rib fragments are drawn inwards with each inspiration and pushed outwards with each expiration.
Flail Chest Symptoms:
- Chest pain
- Tension pneumothorax: life-threatening condition that results from a progressive deterioration and worsening of a simple pneumothorax, associated with the formation of a `one-way valve` of air entering the space but not leaving.
- Use of accessory breathing muscles
- Decreased or absent breathing sounds
- Decreased movement on the affected side
Tension Pneumothorax (one way air leak)
- air moves into the pleural space and becomes trapped
- increased positive pressure in pleural space results in lung compression.
- Mediastinal shift to opposite side
- the opposite lung is compressed.