• A condition that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density, causing bones to become fragile, increasing insufficiency fracture risk


  • aging
  • genetics
  • endocrine disorders – parathyroid hormone changes,
  • hormonal profile changes – menopause


Most Crucial Risk Factors

  1. low peak bone mass
  2. increased bone loss post menopause – estrogen loss
  3. aging: post 30yrs – bone mass loss



  • the cycle of osseous remodeling changes with age (decreased osteoblast activity)
  • 20yrs of age – all epiphysial plates fused
  • resorption begins to overtake osteoblast activity post 30yrs



  • musculoskeletal pain of bones and muscles d/t microfractures
  • vertebral changes – compression #’s, kyphosis
  • mandible deterioration – dental loosening and loss with increased bone resorption periodontally



  • bone density scan of
  1. hip
  2. wrist
  3. spine
  • photon detection as radiation passed though bones



  • vitamin and mineral supplements
  • excercise
  • fracture prevention
  • pharmacologic interventions – decrease rate of bone resorption

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